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初中英语使役动词及其用法考点直击,夯实语法必看!

2019-02-15 10:12:44 0

英语中具有使役意义的动词较多,跟人们常常说的使役动词不是一个概念。通常我们说使役动词,指的是make, have, let这三个动词,它们在后接不定式作宾语补足语时要省去不定式符号to。但具有使役意义的动词数量上远不止这些,用法也较灵活,现将其分类叙述如下,以饷读者。

图片关键词

使役动词have, let, make (常用于复合结构)


1. have的用法


1)have +宾语+do(省略to的不定式):表示主语“要”“使”“让”宾语干某事,宾语和宾补之间是一种主动关系。


The rich lady had the singer eat with her servants.

这位富有的女士让这位歌手和她的仆人一起吃饭。
I will have him come and help you.

我会让他来帮助你的。


2)have+宾语+现在分词:表示让某人或物连续进行某动作或处于某状态中,宾语和宾补是一种主动关系。


The two cheats had the lights burning all night long.

这两个骗子让灯整晚亮着。

He had us waiting for him three hours yesterday.

昨天他让我们一直等了他三个小时。
I have them all talking to each other in English.

我鼓励他们用英语交谈。


3)have +宾语+过去分词:表示主语的主观意志,即主语让别人为自己完成某事,宾语和宾补是动宾关系,还可以表示主语遭受到来利或不测的事。


Tom said he had had his TV set repaired.

汤姆修了他的电视机。(别人修的)
Tom had his wallet stolen on the bus yesterday.

昨天汤姆使他的钱包被偷了。(别人偷的)


4)have+宾语+形容词/副词/介词短语作宾补


Please have your tickets ready.

请准备好你的票。
The Emperor had nothing on.

这位皇帝什么都没在做。
I am sure I’ll have him in the argument.


2. let的用法


1)let +宾语+do(省to不定式):表示主语“要”“使”“让”宾语干某事,宾语和宾补之间是一种主动关系。


Let them stay in the classroom and do their exercises themselves.

让他们自己待在教室里做练习吧。
Let AB be equal to CD.

假设AB等于CD.


2)let+宾语+副词/介词短语作宾补
Let me in and let them out.

让我进来,让他们出去。
Who let you into the building?

谁让你进到大楼里来的?


3. make的用法


1)make +宾语+do(省to不定式):表示主语“要”“使”“让”宾语干某事,宾语和宾补之间是一种主动关系。此结构常用被动结构。


The teacher made the naughty boy stand there for an hour.

老师让这个调皮的男孩在那里站了一个小时。
The naughty boy was made to stand there for an hour.

这个调皮的男孩被让在那站了一个小时。


2)make+宾语+过去分词,此结构中的宾语指人时常用到反身代词。
He raised his voice to make himself heard.

他提高嗓音让自己被听到。
They will make an important plan known to the public soon.

他们不久就会让公众知道这个计划。


3)make+宾语+形容词,宾语亦可是从句。

The news made her happy.

这个消息使她快乐。
He made it clear that he objected to the proposal.

他明确表明他反对这个建议。


使役意义状态动词get, leave, set, send, keep, drive, etc.常用于复合结构中


1. get:使成为/变得某种状态或结果。


I can’t get the old radio to work.

我无法让那旧收音机工作起来。(接带to不定式作宾补)
Can you really get that old car going again?

你真能让那旧车运转起来吗?
The farmer got his planting done before the rain came.

那农民在雨季前完成了种植。
He got his wrist broken.

他折断了手腕。(主语发生了不幸的事)
She soon got the children ready for school.

她迅速使孩子们做好了上学准备。


2. leave:使保持/处于某种状态


Leave your hat and coat in the hall.

把帽子和外套放在大厅里。
Did you leave the doors and windows firmly fastened?

你把门窗紧紧锁上了吗?
Always leave things where you can find them again.

总应把东西放在能再次找到的地方。
Who left that window open?

谁让窗户开着?
Don’t leave him waiting outside in the rain.

别让他在外面雨中等待。
Leave somebody / something alone.

不要干涉某人或某事。


3. set:使某人或某物处于或达到某种特殊的状态或关系


set somebody at his ease 使某人安逸/舒适/心情放松
set something in order 使某物井然有序
set somebody free / at liberty 使某人获得自由,释放(犯人等)
It’s time we set the machine going. 是我们发动机器的时候了。
The news set me thinking. 这消息使我陷入了沉思。
He set the farm laborer to chop wood. 他让农场工人去砍伐木材。
I have set myself to finish the job by the end of May. 我决心于五月底前完成那工作。
set a thief to catch a thief. 以毒攻毒;令贼捉贼


4. send:使某人或某物急剧地移动


The earthquake sent the crockery and cutlery crashing to the ground. 地震将杯盘刀叉震落在地上。
Mind how you go----you nearly sent me flying. 小心点,你差点将我撞飞了.
Send that fellow about his business / packing. 叫那家伙滚蛋.
The good harvest sent the prices down. 丰收使物价下跌.


5. drive:使某人处于某状态,迫使某人做某事


Failure drove him to despair / desperation. 失败使他绝望。

You’ll drive me mad / to my wits’end. 你会把我气疯的。/ 你会使我穷尽应付的。
Hunger drove him to steal. = He was driven by hunger to steal.他为饥饿所迫而偷窃。


6. keep:使某人或某物保持某种状态


You should keep the children quiet. 你要使孩子们静下来。
The cold weather kept us indoors. 寒冷的天气使我们待在家里。
If your hands are cold, keep them in your pockets. 如果你手冷,把它们放在口袋里。
Will they keep me in prison / custody. 他们会监禁/拘留我吗?
I’m sorry I’ve kept you waiting. 很报歉让你久等了。
The doctors managed to keep me going. 医生们设法让我活下去。


使役意义动态动词


1. cause  致使,导致(能接直接宾语,双宾语,复合宾语)


What caused his death? 什么导致了他的死亡?
This has caused us much anxiety. 这给我们带来了极大的忧虑。
What caused the plants to die.(=what made them die.)什么使得这些植物枯死。
He caused the prisoner to be put to death. (=he had them put to death.)他使得这些犯人被处死。


2. force 迫使,强迫 (宾语后常接介词短语、副词及不定式等)


force one’s way through a crowd 从人群中挤出一条路来.
force a way in / out / through 冲入/出/过
force an entry into a building 强行进入一建筑
force the war upon him 强迫某人作战
force someone into doing something 强迫某人做某事
force sb./ oneself to work hard 迫使某人/自己努力工作


“半使役动词”amaze, astonish等


1. 常见的半使役动词


amaze(使某人感到惊呀), astonish(使某人感到惊奇), 
bore(使某人感到厌倦), complicate(使某人感到复杂), 
confuse(使某人感到迷惑), disappoint (使某人感到失望), 
delight(使某人感到高兴), discourage(使某人感到气馁),
distinguish(使某人感到显著), excite (使某人感到兴奋), 
encourage(使某人感到鼓舞), exhaust (使某人感到疲倦), 
frighten(使某人感到恐惧), interest (使某人感到有趣), 
inspire(使某人感到刺激), move(使某人感到激动), 
please(使某人感到高兴), puzzle(使某人感到不解), 
satisfy(使某人感到满意), surprise(使某人感到惊异), 
shock(使某人感到震惊), strike (使某人感到震动),
tire(使某人感到疲惫), upset (使某人感到迷惑不解),等等。


2. 半使役动词的主动式用法:something + vt. + somebody

The exam result satisfied his parents.

考试结果令他的父母很满意。

The boy’s behavior upset everybody around.

这个男孩的行为使周围的每个人都很沮丧。


3. 半使役动词有两个或三个派生形容词,一个加-ing,一个加-ed,有时还有一个加其他后缀构成。


如:interest----interesting, interested;

astonish----astonishing, astonished; 
please----pleasing, pleased, pleasant;

satisfy----satisfying, satisfied, satisfactory.


4. 半使役动词的v-ing和v-ed两个分词形容词的用法也有规律,一般而言,作定语时,v-ing分词形容词修饰事物,v-ed分词形容词修饰人或者人的心理活动、表情等;作表语或宾语补足语时,v-ing分词形容词指事,v-ed分词形容词指人或拟人用法,而且作表语的v-ed分词后接事时常有一个介词,如:


The film we saw last night was very interesting.

我们昨天晚上看的电影非常有趣。
We were all interested in the film.

我们都对这部电影感兴趣。
The frightening hurricane made the girl very frightened.

令人恐惧的飓风使这个女孩感到害怕。
The teacher was satisfied with the answer of his students.

这位老师对他学生们的回答感到满意。



来源:初中英语

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